İNGİLİZCE-SÜMERCE SÖZLÜK-POLAT KAYA

 

A ENGLISH - SUMERIAN - TURKISH DICTIONARY
Prepared by
Polat Kaya
(September 12, 1997)
[A to G inclusive]



In the list below, the English words are the intermediary words between the Sumerian and the Turkish words.


English ...... Sumerian ..... Turkish
___________ ... _________ ... _____________
-ablaitive ........ Ka-ta ........ Kapu-tan, Kapu-dan
-accusative ........ Ka-n-i ........ kapu-n-u, KapI-y-I
-dative ........ Ka-na ....... Kapu-y-a
-equiative ........ Ka-gim ........ Kapu-kimi
-genetive ........ Ka-na(k) ........ Kapu-n-un
-innesive ........ Ka-ta ........ Kapu-da
3 ........ Es ........ üç
10 ........ U, un ........ on
Abundance ........ He-Gal ... g>b ........ bol
Accumulate ........ dirig ........ irk (toplamak) [ONT]
Adam ........ Adapa ........ Adam (atam)=my father; (homosapien) ataapa = father's father
Advice ........ Gal-ga ...g>b ........ Bil-ge
Air ........ Lil ...l>y ........ yil (yel)= wind
Ancestor ........ Bil-ga ........ Bil-ge (=knowledgable, experienced)
Anger ........ mir ...m>k ........ kiz-mak (=to get angry)
Ant ........ marun ...m>k ........ karîn-ca [ONT]
Arm ........ Kar ........ Kol, kar?
Ashes ........ De-Dal ... d>k ........ kül
Away from ........ -ta ........ -tan, -dan, -ten, -den (suffix)
Back ........ Eger ........ Eg~er (=saddle)
Back of head ........ Arku ........ arka (=back)
Band ........ dib ........ yip (=ip=string) [ONT]
Bank of river ........ Gu ... g>k ........ Kî-yî
Base ........ Ur ........ Uruk (=family, clan)
Be strong (to) ........ kalag ... g>ng ........ kaling (kalabalik, çok sürü; kalîn, kesif; çok, sayîsîz, sîk, koyu) [ONT]
Be great ........ Diri ........ Diri (=alive with life, energetic)
Beaches of river ........ Ki-A ........ Kî-yî
Bead ........ nunuz ... n>y ........ yinçü (=inci= pearl) [ONT]
Beans ........ Lu-ub ........ Lobya, Lobi (Uygur)
Bear ........ Az ... z>y ........ Ayî
Beard ........ Sig ........ Sak-al
Beat (to) ........ Tud ... d>v ........ döv
Beginning ........ Sha-Har ........ seher, tan (=morning)
Behind ........ E-Gir ........ geri
Belligerent ........ Kur ........ Kîr-an (=one who breaks)
Beloved ........ Ki-Aga ........ Aga (=Lord, elder brother, one who is respected and loved)
Bend (to) ........ Gur ........ Eg~ (=bend; Kîr = break)
Best ........ Sag ........ Sag~ (=unbroken, in best condition)
Bird ........ Mus~en ... m>k ........ Kus~ (notice the "kus~/mus~" saying in Turkish)
Bird ........ usa^an ........ kus^ (uçan)
Birdnest ........ us^ub ........ kus^+eb (kus^evi, yuva) [ONT]
Birth ........ Gal ........ Gö-bek (=navel, emblical chord)
Blacksmiths ........ Simug-A ... s>t ........ timur (=blacksmith); (temir= iron)
Blood ........ mud ... m>k ........ kan [ONT]
Blow (wind) (to) ........ es^ ........ es-mek [ONT]
Border ........ zag ... z>y ........ yaka (taraf, yan, civar) [ONT]
Border, limit ........ mas^ ... m>k ........ kas^ (kîyî, kenar) [ONT]
Breakthrough ........ Gu-Gir ........ KIr gir (=break and enter)
Breath ........ Lil ... l>y ........ yil (yel) (=wind)
Bright ........ zal ... z>y ........ yal-drîk, (yal-druk, parlak, süslü)
Bright, light ........ zalag ... z>y ........ yalîng (alev, yalçîn) [ONT]
Broker ........ Dam-Kar ........ KIr-an
Brother (older) ........ Bulug-Gal ........ Aga-bey; aka-uka (Ui.Tr)
Brother ........ S~es~ (Ses) ........ Kardas~
Build ........ Du ........ Dik (=build a house; sew a dress)
But ........ Am ........ Ama
Butter ........ Ia-Nun ........ Yag~
By the God ........ Dingir-E ........ Tengir icin , Tengi icin
Call ........ Sa ........ Ca-g~Ir
Cast away (to) ........ ku ........ ko-y (birakmak, koymak, terketmek, atmak)
Catch (to) ........ Gab ........ Kap= to snatch
Cattle stable ........ s^urum ... m>k ........ sürüg (sürü) [ONT]
Champion ........ Ur ........ Er, yigit (= brave man)
Chanal ........ garim ........ arik (ark; irmak) [ONT]
City ........ Uru, Ur ........ Uruk (=family, clan)
City ........ Sag-Uru ........ Sag~ (=complete, whole);
Cleanse ........ zalag ... z>y ........ Yala (= to clean by licking)
Cloth ........ Tug ........ E-tek
Come ........ Gen, Gin ........ Gel
Command ........ A-Aga ........ Aga (buyuk kis^i) (=Lord, one who commands)
Conqueror ........ Al-Tar ........ Tarkan
Constable (police) ........ Aga-Us ........ Aga (=Lord); Us (=reason); koy agasi (=village master)
Country side ........ Kur ........ KIr
Country ........ tir ........ yir (yer, toprak, [ONT]
Crown ........ Aga ........ Aga (=Lord)
Crush (to) ........ Gaz, Guz ........ Ez
Crush ........ gaz ........ ez-mek [ONT]
Cry ........ I-lu ........ Agla
Cut (to) ........ Has^ ........ Kes-mek
Cut into pieces (to) ........ kid2 ........ kid-mak (kiymak, öldürmek)[ONT]
Cut up (to) ........ Sil(a) 12,117 ........ S^IlI (Tele. Tr)=it cuts
Cut, break ........ tar ........ yar-mak [ONT]
Dagger ........ Giri-Ba-Da-Ra ........ Gir-en (=piercing instrument)
Dark ........ Ku-Kuga ........ Kara (=black)
Darkness ........ Ku-Ku (G) ........ Kara
Dawn ........ Sha-har ........ Seher, Tan
Day ........ U ........ Gün, Kün
Day, time (in general) ........ u4(d) ........ kün (gün, günes^, gündüz) [ONT]
Daybreak, dawn ........ dag ... g>ng ........ tang (tan, sabah vakti) [ONT]
Dead, to die ........ us^2 ...s^>l ........ öl (ölmek) [ONT]
Decree ........ A-Aga ........ Aga sözü(=Lord's orders)
Deity ........ Dingir ........ Tengir, Tengere, Tengri, Tangara
Desert ........ Kur ........ KIr (=not fertile land); Kum (=sand)
Discernment ........ umus^ ... m>k ........ ukus^ (akil, anlayis^) [ONT]
Disperse, undo (to) ........ bur ... r>z ........ boz-mak, yikmak [ONT]
Distance ........ Us ........ Az, uz (az gittik uz gittik gibi);
District ........ nanga ... n>y ........ yanga (yan, kanat)
Divorce ........ Tag ........ Dag~-Il (=separate, disperse)
Dog ........ Lik, Ur ........ bör, börü, it; kurt (=wolf)
Door ........ gis^ig ........ es^ik (kapi =outside) [ONT]
Drill (to) ........ bur 411,104 ........ Burgu (=drill)
Drive (to) ........ Hus 565,58 ........ Kos^u (Os. Tr)=wagon, coach ???
Elders ........ Ab-ba ........ Aba, apa
Enemy ........ taga ........ yagi (dus^man) [ONT]
Energetic ........ dirig ........ irig, diri [ONT]
Enourmous ........ Diri ........ iri
Equipment(for boat) ........ Su-Kara ........ su (=water); araç (=equipment)
Estate ........ E ........ Ev (=house, estate)
Esteem highly ........ Ig Kal ........ iyi, iygi (= good); Kal (=stay)
Evening ........ Usan ........ Aks^am
Excellent ........ Diri ........ Diri (=alive with life, energetic)
Excessive (extra) ........ Dirig-Dirig ........ Diri diri
Face ........ Sag-ki ........ Sak-kal (=beard)
False ........ Lul-La ........ Yal-an (=lie, deception)
Far mountain land ........ Ish-Kur ........ Dîsh kîr (=outside lands)
Fat ........ Ia ........ Yag~
Father ........ Ad-da, A-A ........ Ata, Atta
Feet ........ Gir ........ Gir (=enter); yürü (=walk)
Fill (to) ........ du3 t........ o-l-mak (dolmak) [ONT]
Find (to) ........ Bu-Bu-Lu ........ Bul
Fine flower ........ Zid-Gu ... z>ç ........ Çiçek
Finger ........ u ........ Ui (=sleeve)
Fire ........ Ag, Bil, Gira, Izi ........ Köz (=non flaming fire); Ag~ (ak=color of glowing fire, white)
Flashing eyes ........ Igi-Gun-Gun ........ Gün (=Sun, Sun light, day light)
Flesh ........ Uzu ........ Kuzu (=Lamb)
Follow, accompany ........ tag, tuku7 ........ daga- (izlemek, es^lik etmek, taklit etmek, emrinde olmak) [ONT]
Foot ........ Gir, Giri ........ Gir (=enter)
Foot ........ mulu ... m>k ........ köl (ayak) [ONT]
Foothill ........ Hursag ........ KIrsal (=unproductive land)
For ........ Es ........ Için
Ford ........ Bala ........ Balaban (=large bodied)
Foundation ........ us^ ... s^>l ........ ul (duvar temeli) [ONT]
Free (to)? ........ gid ........ id (salmak, göndermek, serbest birakmak, geçirmek, ulas^tirmak) [ONT]
Front ........ Gaba ........ Gabag~ (=Front)
Fruit ........ Gurud ........ Gurud (=dried yogurt balls)
Garden , field ........ kiri6 ........ kîr (kîr, basîk, dag~, açik yer) [ONT]
Garden ........ Kiri ........ kir, yer (toprak) =dirt, soil
Garment ........ Tug ........ e-tek (=lower part of woman's dress)
Gate ........ Ka ........ Kapu, kapî
Gateway of the Gods ........ Ka-Dingir ........ Tengir KapIsI, Tengri KapIsI
Gather ........ Ur ........ Ur (=a round growth)
Girl (young) ........ Ki-sikil-Tur ........ KIz
Give (to) ........ sum ........ sun- (sunmak, uzatmak) [ONT]
Glanzen?, hell ........ zalag ... g>ng ........ yaling (alev; yalçin, sarp,
Glazed, bright ........ zal ... z>y ........ yal (yalov, alev) [ONT]
Gnaw (to) ........ Tukur ........ Tükür (=to spit)
Go ........ Gin ... n>t ........ Git
God - Moon ........ Sin? ........ Ay Tengri (the word SIN is in Akkadian)
God - Sun ........ Utu ........ Kün Tengri
God ........ Dingir ........ Tengir, Tengere, Tangara, Tengri
God of Air and Earth ........ En-Lil ........ Yil (=Wind, air)
God of Heaven ........ An ........ Tan (=Sky); Tengri, TanrI (=Sky God)
god ........ dingir ........ tingir, tengri, tanri
Goddess of Dreams ........ Nina ........ Ninni (=lullaby)
Goldsmith ........ kudim ... d>y ........ kuyumcu
Good ........ sag ........ sag (sag~, iyi, sag~lam) [ONT]
Grab ........ urugal ........ kurgan (kurgan, kale, mezar)[ONT]
Grasp (to) ........ Kap ........ Kap (=pot, utensil that holds something in); kap-mak = to snatch and hold
Grass ........ ulia ........ öleng (sulak yer, bataklik; ot, çayir; çimenlik; otlak) [ONT]
Great (to be) ........ Gu-ul ........ Ulu ol-mak
Great ........ Gal ........ Ulu =Great
Ground ........ Ur ........ Yer;
Grow (to make) ........ Bulug ........ Bulug~ (=to grow ripe; bulug~ =puberty; to reach puberty; to ripen)
Guard (to) ........ Kurum, Uru ........ Koru-mak


A ENGLISH - SUMERIAN - TURKISH DICTIONARY
Prepared by
Polat Kaya
(September 12, 1997)

[H to S inclusive]


English ...... Sumerian ..... Turkish
___________ ... _________ ... _____________
Hair ........ Suhur, sig ........ Sakal (=beard; Kîl)
Half ........ s^urim ... s>y ........ yarîm (=bir s^eyin yarîsî) [ONT]
Hand ........ silig ........ elig (=el) [ONT]
Hand ........ Su, gis ........ El, ked, kesi ?
Happiness ........ Sag-Ga ........ Sag~ kal (=stay healthy and alive)
He is/she is ........ E-Ne-Am ........ o-dur
He/she ........ E-Ne ........ an, o
Head ........ Rishu, Sa, Sag ........ Bash; sag-ol (=thank you, stay alive)
Healthy(be) ........ Sag ........ Sag~
Hear (to) ........ Gis-Tuku ........ is^it
Heart ........ Sa, Ur ........ ür-ek (yürek)
Heat, hot ........ izim ... m>k ........ isig (sicak, sicaklik) [ONT]
Heaven ........ An ........ Tan (=sky)
Heaven ........ Anna ........ Ana (=mother)
Heaven ........ Dingir ........ Tengir, Tengri, Tengere (=the most omnipotent god, God of all gods)
Heavens ........ Shamaini ........ Shaman, Kam=Diviner, communicator with Heavens
Heavy ........ Dugud ........ AgIr
Height ........ Gur ........ Gür (= abundant, dense, high rank);
Help ........ dirra ........ yari (=yardim) [ONT]
Herdsman ........ Sipad ........ Coban
Hero ........ Mes, Ur ........ Er
Hers ........ Enene ........ AnIn, onun
High as sky ........ Ul ........ Ulu
High ........ Dingir ........ Tengir (=Highest as God)
High ........ Gur ........ Gur (=high rank)
Highland ........ Kur ........ KIr (dagli tasli yer) = hilli, stony unproductive land, countryside
Hill country ........ Kur ........ KIr, KIrac (= arid land, waste land)
Hinzufugen?? ........ tag ........ tak- (takmak, bag~lanmak) [ONT]
His/her ........ Enene ........ AnIn, onun
Holy ........ Kug ........ Kut-sal; kutlu (=blessed) Honey Lal l>b Bal
Hostile judgement ........ Di-Kur ........ KIran dil (=language that hurts)
Hostile ........ Kur ........ KIr-an (=one who breaks)
Hot ........ Kum ........ Kum=sand
House ........ E ........ Ev (eb)
How long? ........ En-She ........ ne-ce?
How? ........ A-na ........ Ne?, Ne-ce?, na-sIl?
Huge ........ Diri ........ iri (=huge); diri (=very alive)
Humid ........ Duru ........ Duru su (=clean, pure water)
Hunter ........ Ur ........ Er (=man, hero, hunter)
Hurry (to) ........ Ul ........ Ul-as^ (=come quickly)
I ........ Ma-a ........ Men
Ill, hurt, pain ........ gig ........ ig (=hastalik, hasta) [ONT]
Inheritance ........ Hala ........ Hala (=father's sister)
Insect ........ zibin ........ cibin (sinek)
Intestine ........ Ba, bel=inside ........ Bel (bil = waist)
Judge (to) ........ Di-Du ........ De, di (=to say, to speak, to judge)
Just as ........ Gim ........ Kimi
King ........ alim ... m>k ........ ilig (hükümdar, kîral) [ONT]
Knife ........ Giri ........ Gir-en (=a piercing object, cutter)
Know how ........ Zu ........ Us (=experience, visdom)
Know ........ Zu ........ Us (=reason)
Knowledge ........ Zu ........ Us (=intelligence, intellect)
Lady (heavenly) ........ Nin-Ana-Si-Anna ........ Tan ana
Lady (palace) ........ s^is^, S^es^ ........ is^i (=princes; es~= spouse) [ONT]
Lady ........ Nin ........ Ha-nIm, nine
Lady of Air ........ Nin-Lil ........ Yelana
Land ........ kur ........ kuru (kara, toprak, yer) [ONT]
Large (to) ........ Gu-Ul ........ Ulu ol
Large ........ Gal ........ Ulu
Large, huge ........ dirig ........ irig=iri [ONT]
Lay out ........ nad ... n>y ........ yad-mak (yayak, sermek [ONT]
Leader ........ I-Ku, Ku, Sa ........ Hakan, Kun, Kan, Han
Leben?? ........ tin ........ tin (ruh, nefes, soluk) [ONT]
Leg ........ Gir ........ Yürü (=walk)
Liar ........ Lu-Lul ........ YalancI
Lick (to) ........ Eme ........ em (emmek =to suckle)
Light ........ Bir, gisnu ........ Is^In,
Light ........ nurum ... n>y ........ nur (yaruk, parlak) = light [ONT]
Lighted (be) ........ Zal(ag) 393,5 ........ Alav (alev)=flame
Like ........ Gim ........ Kimi
Limbs ........ Ur ........ Ur (=External growth on body)
Limitlessness ........ Ab-Zu ........ Son-suz
Lion ........ Aru, ........ Ur Arslan
Listen ........ Gis-Tuku ........ is^it
Little ........ sig 592,10/19 ........ -cik, cek (diminutive suffix)
Liver ........ Ur ........ Bag~-Ir, cig~er
Long for (to) ........ As^ 2 339,8 ........ As^ ermek (=longing in pregnancy)
Make (to) ........ ki ........ ki-l (kilmak, yapmak) [ONT]
Man (my) ........ mulumu ... m>k ........ kul-um (köle-m) [ONT]
Man, manly ........ Er, ir, ur 50,7 ........ Er
Market ........ Kar ........ Kâr (=profit)
Meat ........ Uzu ........ Kuzu (= lamb)
Fate ........ me ........ men, men menem (=I am my fate)
Merchant ........ Dam-Kar ........ Kâr adamI (= profit man)
Metal t........ ibira ........ temir (demir) [ONT]
Mighty ........ Agal ........ Ulug (ulu =grand, mighty)
Mighty ........ Kalag ........ Kalag~ (=wall ); wall of dung bricks set up for drying; military barracks
Mind ........ Us, Us^ 4 536,26 ........ Us (= intelligence, mind)
Mine ........ Ma-E, Mana ........ Menim
Minus ........ La ... l>m ........ -ma (=suffix for negative expression)
Misery ........ dulum ........ yulug (kurban, fidye) [ONT]
Mother ........ Ama ........ Ana; emcik (=nipple)
Mother ........ um ... m>k ........ ög (anne) [ONT]
Much ........ S^ug ........ Çok
My ........ -mu ........ menim, -m (in suffix form)
Name, fame ........ mu ... m>k ........ kü (ün, s~an) [ONT]
Named (be) ........ Na 97,4 ........ Nam (old Tr) =name ?
Narrow ........ Sig ........ SIkI
Nibble ........ Tukur ........ Tükür (=spit)
Nice ........ Sag ........ Sag~ (=health); sag~lam (=unbroken)
Nose ........ Bun, Kiri, Kur ........ Burun
Oil ........ Ia ........ Yag
Old man ........ Ab-ba ........ Apa, baba
Out of, from ........ -Ta (suffix) ........ -tan, -dan (suffix)
Ox ........ gud ........ ud (=sîgîr, öküz, boga) [ONT]
Parfume ........ iduga ........ yidik, sidik (pis kokan) [ONT]
Path, trail, road ........ sulu ... s>y ........ yol [ONT]
Patrimony ........ E-Ad-Da ........ Ata evi (=parent's home)
Peak ........ Pa 295,11 ........ Bas^ (=head); tepe (=hill)
Peck (with a beak) ........ Ka-Ka-Durud ........ Gaga (=beak)
Penis ........ Gis ........ Sik (Note: word reversal)
People, folk ........ un ........ kün (elgün, halk) [ONT]
Pierce ........ Zi....Kes ........ Kes (=cut)
Pleasant (to make) ........ Sag ........ Sag ol (=stay alive; thank you)
Pleasure ........ Sag-Ga ........ Sag Kal (=stay alive)
Ploughing ........ Ur-Ru ........ Tarla (=field)
Pluck ........ Til-Til ........ Yol-mak
Poem, song ........ sir ........ s~iir, türkü [ONT]
Point ........ Kiri, Kur ........ Burun (=nose, peninsula)
Pomegranate ........ Nurma ........ Nar
Pour out (to) ........ dug ........ tök (dökmek) [ONT]
Power (divine) ........ Me ........ men (kader);
Power (to have) ........ Kalag ........ Kala (=Fort; Kalag=wall)
Prayer ........ Ziskur ........ Zikir (=pray)
Prefer ........ Sag-Kal ........ Sag-kal=wishing you stay alive
Priest ........ Saga ........ Ak Sakal (=wise man, elderman)
Priestess ........ Su-Kal ........ Ak Sakal (=wise man, elderman)
Prime, good ........ sig ... s>y ........ yig (yeg~= iyi) [ONT]
Prophet ........ Nabu ........ Nebi
Protect (to) ........ Dul ........ Dul (=widow)
Protect (to) ........ uru ........ koru-mak
Protect, shelter ........ kur ........ koru- (korumak) [ONT]
Push ........ gid ........ it-mek [ONT]
Rain (to) ........ Zub ........ Çip Çip (Ui.Tr)=Noise made by dripping water
Rain ........ s~eg ... s>y ........ yag-mur [ONT]
Raise oneself ........ Zig 84,45 ........ ÇIk-mak (=to go out or up)
Ram (Animal) ........ alim ... m>k ........ elik (geyik, elik, kiyik; ceylan; dag~ keçisi, yaban keçisi) [ONT]
Raven (the) ........ Kur-Su-Na ........ Karga (=crow); suna (=duck)
Reap (to) ........ gur10 ........ or- (=kesmek, biçmek) [ONT]
Reap (to), mow ........ gur10 ........ orak (=sickle); [ONT]
Reaping ........ gurun6 ........ orum (=kesim) [ONT]
Reeds ........ Gi ........ Cil (hasir = a water plant used for weaving)
Reeds ........ Gi ........ i (= agaç, ekin, bitki, orman) [ONT]
Rest (to) ........ nad3 ... n>y ........ yat-mak; yatak [ONT]
Right side ........ zag ........ sag~ (sag~ taraf)
Ripen (to) ........ Bulug ........ Bulug (=to reach puberty age)
Run quickly ........ Kas-Kar ........ Kos~ (=run); kos~ kos~ (=run quickly)
Sanctuary ........ E-an-na ........ Anaevi (=mother's house)
Sandstorm ........ U-Lu ........ Ulu yel (=strong wind)
Search for ........ B-Bu-Lu ........ Bul
Seat ........ dur ........ dur-ma yeri
Seat ........ dur ........ tör (sedir, oturma yeri) [ONT]
Seed (grain) ........ Numun ........ Tohum
Seed ........ Nummun ........ Su Meni suyu (=semen, human seed)
Semen ........ A ........ Meni
Send back (to) ........ Ge ........ Ge-ri (=towards back)
Sentence ........ Di ........ De-mek (=to speak out)
Sesam oil ........ dig ........ yag (=oil, fat) [ONT]
Set foot on (to) ........ Giri-Si ........ Giris^ (=entrance)
Shadow ........ gis^ge ... s^>l ........ gölge [ONT]
Shallow ........ sig ........ sig~ (derin olmaya)
She ........ Ananene ........ Hanîm, anaana (=Lady Grandmother)
She ........ Ene-E-ne ........ An, o
Sheep ........ udu ........ kon~ (koyun)
Shepherd ........ sipad ........ çopan [ONT]
Shine (to) ........ zal ... z>y ........ yal-dra (az îs~îmak) [ONT]
Shine (to) ........ Zal(ag) 393,5 ........ Alav (alev)=flame
Sink (to) ........ Su-Su ........ Su=water
Six ........ as^s^a ... s^>l ........ alti [ONT]
Skin ........ Bar, kus ........ Deri; örtü=cover
Sky ........ An ........ Tañ, Gök
Sky God ........ Anu ........ Tangara, Tengere, Tengir, Tengri
Slaughter ........ Gaz ........ Bo-gaz-la; Kes (=cut)
Sleep (to) ........ U , Tu ........ Uyu
Sleep ........ u ........ u (uyku) [ONT]
Sleep ........ udi ... d>y ........ udi-mak (uyumak; ud=uyku)[ONT]
Small child ........ sag ... s > ç or s^ > ç ........ çag~a (yeni dog~mus^, daha tüyü bitmemis^, [ONT])
Small ........ sig 592,10/19 ........ -cik, cek (diminutive suffix)
Smear ........ Ta-Sar ........ Sür (=smear over a surface) sar (=wrap, surround, encircle, bandage)
Sour ........ Izi 172,159 ........ Eks^i
Speak ........ Gu-de, di-Di ........ de, di (=speak)
Speech ........ Inim ........ Inle-mek (=to moan)
Speed ........ Kas-Kas ........ Kos~ Kos~(=hurry); kac (=run away)
Speed ........ kas^4 ........ kaç-mak (kos^mak) [ONT]
Split (to) ........ Sil(a) 12,117 ........ S^îlî (Tele. Tr)=it cuts
Split ........ Dar ........ yar-mak [ONT]
Spring t........ ul2 ........ yul (kaynak, pinar, su gözü, çay) [ONT]
Spring ........ tul ........ bul-ak (su kaynag~î, göze)
Stall ........ hum ........ kom (ag~il, ahîr) [ONT]
Star ........ Mul ........ Ulduz, yîldîz
Star ........ Zal(ag) 393,5 ........ Yalduz; (S^ol-pan (Kr.Tr)=morning star, Venus)
Stay (to) ........ mal ... m>k ........ kal-mak [ONT]
Stinking ........ gid ........ sidik (= urine)
Stinking ........ gid ........ id/yid (koku, misk) [ONT]
Storm ........ Lil ........ Yel, yil (=wind), wind storm
Storm ........ ud ........ kad (kar fîrtînasî, bora, tipi) [ONT]
Strong (to be) ........ Kalag ........ Kalag (=wall); Kala (=Fort)
Submerged (to be) ........ Gir-Gir ........ Gir-mis~=entered
Suffer a mishap ........ Tag-Tag ........ Deg-mek (=To touch); tak tak vurmak, zorlu deg-mek (=hit to hurt)
Summit ........ pa ........ Bas^(=head), tepe (=hill); ka-pak(=cover)
Sun ........ kid2 ... d>n ........ kün (gün, günes^, gündüz) [ONT]
Sun, day, time ........ ud, dKIN ........ kün (kün, günes^, gündüz) [ONT]
Supplies ........ kislah ........ kIs~lak (=winter quarters)
Surpass ........ Diri ........ Diri (=very alive); Gür-büz (=sturdy, robust, healty)
Swear ........ Tu ........ Tu (tükürmek) =spit used as insult

A ENGLISH - SUMERIAN - TURKISH DICTIONARY

Prepared by
Polat Kaya
(September 12, 1997)

[T to Z inclusive]


English ...... Sumerian ..... Turkish
___________ ... _________ ... _____________
Tabou ........ niggig ... n>y ........ yig- (=engel olmak) [ONT]
Tail ........ Kun ........ Kuy-ruk
Taste ........ Su-Su ........ Su (=water)
Tears (crying) ........ Biz ... b>g ........ Göz (=eye)
Ten (10) ........ u ........ on (sayi "on")
Textile ........ Gada, Buz ........ Boz, bez; boz (= gray colour of textile)
Their ........ -ne-ne ........ Onlarîn, -in, -în (suffix form)
Thick (to be) ........ Gur ........ Gür (=dense, thick, robust)
Thight ........ Sig ........ Sîkî
Thing ........ nig ... g>ng ........ neng (nesne, s^ey, mal, es^ya) [ONT]
Throw (to) ........ ku ........ ko-y (birakmak, koymak, terketmek, atmak)
Time ........ ud ........ öd (zaman, mevsim, hava) [ONT]
To be extra ........ Dirig ........ Diri olmak, canli olmak
To found, establish ........ ur ........ kur (tertip etmek, düzenlemek, hazirlamak, tasarlamak) [ONT]
To guard ........ uru ........ koru-mak
To hit ........ sag~ ........ çak (çakmak, vurmak) [ONT]
To sweep away ........ ur ........ kürü- (kürek gibi bir s^eyle atmak)
to be ........ Gal ... g>b ........ bol, ol
to speak ........ di ........ di, de (demek)
Tongue ........ E-Me ........ em (=suckle); meme (=breast)
Torn ........ dirig ........ yirik , yarik (yirtik) [ONT]
Toss away (to) ........ ku ........ ko-y (birakmak, koymak, terketmek, atmak)
Touch ........ Tag ........ Deg~
Touch upon (to) ........ te(ga) ........ teg~- (deg~mek, dokunmak) [ONT]
Trail ........ Sila ........ iz, yol (keci yolu) =goat's path
Tree ........ Gis ........ Agaç
Troops ........ Eren ........ Eren (Erler, askerler)=troops
Truth, upright, just ........ zi(d) ........ çin (gerçek, gerçeklik, dog~ru) [ONT]
Turban ........ Aga ........ Aga (=Lord)
Two ........ imma ... m>k ........ ikki (iki) [ONT]
Uncle ........ Dod ... d>y ........ Dayî (=mother's brother)
Underground fresh water ........ Ab-zu ........ Su (sub, suv =Water) (5)
Uplands ........ Kur-sa ........ KIr-lar
Urine ........ kas^ ........ kas^-an-mak (atin, buyukbas^ hayvanlarin is^emesi) [ONT]
Utensils ........ kabkagag ........ kapkacak (kitchen utensils) [ONT]
Vast ........ Gal ........ Ulu, Genis^
Verdict (to render a) ........ Di-Til ........ Di, De =To speak; Til (dil)=tongue,
Vessel ........ Bur ........ Bur-mak (=to turn); buruk (=turned, rotated); burgu (=drill)
Vigorous ........ Kalag ........ Kala (=Fortified, well protected)
Village ........ E-Duru ........ Ev=house; Duran (=stays put, immobile); duran ev = immobile house
Violence ........ Erim ........ Er (=man, soldier, hero)
Virgin ........ Ki-sikil-Tur ........ Kîz
Vizier ........ Sukkalmah ........ Ak Sakal= elderman, wiseman
Washing ........ tu5 ... t>y ........ yu (yikamak) [ONT]
Waste land ........ Su ........ Sulu yer(batak)=waste land
We ........ Menden ........ Men-d-en (en is a plurality suffix in Turkish); miz, biz
What is it? ........ A-Na-Am ........ Nemene (Azeri)
Whatsoever ........ nig ... g>ng ........ neng (nesne, s^ey, mal, es^ya) [ONT]
Wheat ........ ziz ... z>ç ........ çeç (teç, samanîndan ayrîlmîs^ tahîl yîgînî) [ONT]
Who ........ Ki ........ Kim
Willow ........ gis~kim ... g>y ........ yîlgîn (îlgîn agacî) [ONT]
Wind ........ Lil ... l>y ........ Yil (yel)
Wood, tree ........ gis~ ... g>y ........ yis~ (agac, orman, dag) [ONT]
Wooden house ........ Barag ........ Baraka
Wool, body hair ........ sig ... g>ng ........ yüng (yün, yün sümeg~i) [ONT]
Work ........ umus^ ........ yumus^ (hizmet, vazife, is^) [ONT]
Work ........ us^ ........ is^
Workmen ........ Erin-E ........ Eren (=men)
Write ........ Sar ........ Sür (old Turkish); yaz
Written document ........ Petka ........ Bitke
You ........ Menzen ........ Sen, Sin

NOTES
1. According to the observations of Prof. Dr. Osman Nedim Tuna, the following sound transformations take place between Sumerian and Turkish:
a. The consonant D, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to Y or drops out altogether in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: dar/yar (yarmak); dip/yip (ip); dig/yag (yag~); dir/yir (yirmek); dirig/irig (sert, kaba, has^in, gayretli, iri, kalin).
b. The consonant G, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to Y or drops out altogether in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: gamar/agir (ag~îr); garim/ar(î)k (irmak, ark, germeç, kas^, kanal); gaz/ez (ezmek); gi/i (ag~aç, ekin, bitki, orman); gid/id- (salmak, gondermek, serbest birakmak); gig/ig (hastalik, hasta); gis^/yîs^ (orman, dag~, ag~aç, çalî, ); gis^ig/es^ik (kapî); gud/ud (ox = sîgîr, öküz)
c. The consonant M, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to K in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: mal/kal (kalmak); mulu/kul (kul, köle); mus^en/kus^.
d. The consonant N, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to Y or drops out altogether in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: nad9/yad- (yaymak, dös^emek, sermek; Note: among dialects of Turkish d>y translation is common); nanga/yanga (yan, taraf, îrmagîn bir yanî); niggig/yîg- (bir s^eye engel olmak); nigin/yîgîn (yîg~în, kume, yig~îlmîs^); nurum/yaruk (îs^îk, aydînlîk, parlak).
e. The consonant S, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to Y or drops out altogether in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: sig/yig (yeg~, iyi); sig/yüng (yün, yün sümeg~i); sis^,s^is^, s^es^/ is^i (princes, lady); s^urim/yarîm (yarîm, bir s^eyin yarîsî); zag, sag/yaka (taraf, yan, cîvar); zal/yal (yalînmak, alevlenmek).
f. The consonant S^, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to Ç in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: sag/çak (çakmak, vurmak); sipad/çopan (koy buyugunun yardrîmcrîsrî, gizir, çoban); s^ab/çap (vurmak, çaptrîrmak).
g. The vovel U, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to K plus a vovel in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: ud/kün (gün, gündüz, günes^); udu/kong (koyun); umag/kömek (gömek, çamurlu bataklik yer); ur/kur (kurmak, düzenlemek, hazrîrlamak); urugan/kurgan (kurgan, mezar, kale); uru/koru (korumak).
h. The consonant D following the first vovel of a Sumerian word, stays as D in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: adakur/adak (ayak, içki kadehi, çanak, kase); gid/id (koku, misk); gud/ud (sîg~îr, öküz); ud/od (zaman, vakit, mevsim, hava); udi/udi- (udimek, uyumak); nad/yad (yaymak, dös^emek, sermek).
i. The consonant M following the first vovel of a Sumerian word, changes to K in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: amas^/agîl (ag~îl, koyun yatag~î, koyun pislig~i); geme/eke (abla); imma/ikki (iki); umus^/ukus^ (akîl, anlayîs^).
j. The consonant R following the first vovel of a Sumerian word, changes to Z in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: bur/boz (bozmak, yîkmak); har/kaz (kazmak); mir/kîz- (îzmak); sar/yaz- (yazmak, s^as^mak, çözmek, yanîlmak); ur/öz (can, ruh, gönül).
k. The consonant S^ following a vovel of a Sumerian word, changes to L in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: amas^/agîl (ag~il, koyun yatag~î); as^s^a/altî; gis^ge/kölige (gölge); us^/ul (duvar temeli); us^2/öl- (ölmek)
l. The consonant D at the end of a Sumerian word, changes to N in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: dugud/yogun (kalîn, yogun); kid2/kün (gün, günes^, gündüz); sipad/çopan (çoban).
m. "ae" at the end of a Sumerian word, changes to "an" in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: mae/men; zae/sen; s^ulpae/çolpan (Çoban yîldîzî); ulia/öleng (sulak yer, bataklîk, ot, çayîr, çimenlik).
n. "g" at the end of a Sumerian word, changes to "ng" in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: as^a(g)/alang (alan, düz, açîk yer); dag/tang (tan, sabah vakti); nig/neng (nesne, s^ey, es^ya, mal) m. "m" at the end of a Sumerian word, changes to "k" in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: alim/elik (geyik, elik, kiyik); alim/ilig (hükümdar, kîral); izim/isig (sicak, sicaklîk).
2. For the English - Sumerian dictionary, sources by Adapa and Ott Kostner as given below in References ESD and SSMM below were used.
3. In this list of Sumerian and Turkish correspondence words, I went trhough a large number of words in the referenced dictionaries and and marked those Sumerian words that I believe are related to or are direct correspondence to the word or words shown in the Turkish column.
4. Some of the correspondences that I located were also given in Dr. Osman Nedim Tuna's book, so in the list above, I marked them with [ONT].
5. In Sumerian writing the word "abzu" is in fact written in the form of "zuab". Why ist it read as "abzu" has no bases for its rendition as "abzu". If it was read as "zuab" as written in Sumerian, it would have a direct correspondence with the Turkish "sub, suc, su" meaning water, fresh water.

REFERENCES
ONT ..... Prof. Dr. Osman Nedim Tuna, "Sümer ve Türk Dillerinin Tarihi Ilgisi ile Türk Dilinin Yasî Meselesi",
..... ..... Atatürk Kültür, Dil ve Tarih Yüksek Kurumu, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayînlarî : 561, Ankara, 1990.
ESD ..... Adapa, "English - Sumerian Dictionary", Twin Rivers Rising Homepage, Internet, 1996.
SSMM ..... Ott Kostner, "Some Sumerian Morphemes and Moder U-A Words", ott@zzz.e(OttKostner), 1996.

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